La entrevista motivacional como herramienta para el fomento de cambios en el estilo de vida de personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles sergio. such as motivational interviewing (Gantiva & Flórez, in press; Lizarraga & Ayarra, ; . Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: . Free Online Library: Eficacia de la entrevista motivacional para promover la caracteristicas denominada entrevista motivacional (EM) (Lizarraga & Ayarra.

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In other theoretical contexts originated in the dual processing model, such as the protection motivation theory Rogers,this primary appraisal is called threat appraisaland is operationalized in terms of the perception of severity and of the perception of susceptibility a person has about real or potential damages.

For example, a big economic loss might result in something too painful, signaling a CSbut it is also too general in itself to account for concrete threats, such as worries about daily expenses, payments of debts, or saving a valuable item at risk of being lost, three different aspects occurring simultaneously in the situation configuring the crisis.

L’ENTREVISTA MOTIVACIONAL by Claudia Garcia Sola on Prezi Next

In the conceptualization of crisis on the basis of the dual parallel process model, focused on the control of harm and the control lizadraga the emotional state, two aspects are particularly important regarding considerations about stress: Simplicity is a property referring to the required conditions for the implementation of the solution, and refers to the intentions of implementation that, as pointed out by Gollwitzerneed to be plain or simple in order to be potent, regardless of the objective situational ambiguity.

The paper concludes with a summary of the three basic sources taken from the psychological literature to inform the design of the DPP-CS: Certainly, efficacy expectations, both of response and of the person’s own ability, play a central role in the maintenance of the motivational process leading the person to initiate and stay committed to the implementation of a particular course of action, in this case a course of action that might lead to lzarraga solution of the crisis, whether by way of emotional coping, of instrumental coping, or of both, as suggested in the following proposal.

Wittein her proposal of dual extended parallel process model, argues that response efficacy outcome expectation is the preeminent factor determining that a coping action will assume the course of the control process for objective harm and will not stay only at the level of emotional control action, which is a course of defensive motivation characteristic of the control process of subjective fear.

Nevertheless, this preeminence of the self-efficacy expectation is questionable, particularly in the case of behaviors approximating a superordinate goal in which a logical coherence between reinforcement expectation and outcome expectation must be anticipated. A CS demands coping, which is why the person is faced with the need to find alternatives of action; this quest for alternatives is pressing, particularly when the interpretation of threat brings about anxiety, or the interpretation of challenge generates a challenge perception, stimulating in both cases the search for avoidance responses that prevent the worsening of harm or the influx of new harms additional to the one already experienced by the person.


Nevertheless, their integration as an explanatory model of crises is relatively new and requires the development of empirical studies verifying it; the novelty of the model is of a great interest regarding the addressing of a crisis in a normal stage of its development, when it has not yet assumed pathological manifestations and as a field of application of BMI.

This theoretical source has been adopted by way of the conceptualization of crisis as a severe stress state in which a deep lizarrraga of motivations occurs, not only in the natural space proper to the crisis event, but in all the spaces forming the total vital field to which a person has a high degree of commitment. What is inevitable is the interpretation of severe harm, a primary appraisal cognitive process, with the resulting emotional consequence of pain caused by the occurred harm, a pain that stimulates escape behaviors, and the interpretation of the threat of harm worsening, which stimulates avoidance behaviors.

That complex state of emotional experience during a CS makes it adopt a syndrome-like nature rather than motivcaional of pure expression of an isolated emotion.

The essential task of emotional coping is to procure relief from emotional pain and to prevent this pain from turning into suffering. Both types are learned throughout the course of life, and in their formation the personal experience in the particular socio-cultural environment where the person has grown up plays a very important role.

Annual Review of Psychology motivwcional, 52 In the present proposal of DPP-CS we adhere to Witte’s view, as will be analyzed later, because this proposal solves some logical and methodological problems that have been stated by previous versions about dual processing and its motivational impact.

In order to characterize CSthe label of dual parallel processing in crisis situation will be used. Harm control is conceptualized as a course of actions that is initiated when the efficacy of response has a minimum value motviacional than that of fear, from which a protective motivation becomes more prevalent over defensive motivation.

Dual Parallel Process in Crisis Situations: Motivational Foundation

The interaction between personal and situational factors previously described generates some dynamics between incertitude, understood as a global condition of the person, and ambiguity, understood as an objective condition of the situation.

In a Moitvacionalby definition, the event occurs in vital areas highly valued by the person e. This interpretation of punishment is highly likely, but it may or may not occur during a CS ; if it does occur, this interpretation becomes an evaluative element additional to the complex of triggering stimuli which determine the onset and evolution of the motviacional.

The development of empirical studies to support the DPP-CS model initially implies the development motivwcional measurement instruments applicable to the intermediary cognitive variables included in the model, as well as the measurement of coping processes.

Avances de la Disciplina6 1, in January, From basic processes to clinical implication pp. Psychophysiology46 These factors are represented in a schematic way in Figure 1. Services on Demand Article. More precisely, DPP-CS is an applied extension of Kim Witte’s dual extended parallel process model, which is the specific theoretical model underlying it.


This distinction between reinforcement expectations and outcome expectations acquires additional importance in a CSin that a critical happening significantly alters the valence of a particular outcome, which in turn alters the significance a person will attribute to the relations between reinforcement and outcome.

Journal of Affective Disorders61 Furthermore, other interventions different from crisis intervention can be the most appropriate in cases where the crisis sets the stage for an anxiety disorder e. This methodological approach is adopted by way of the conceptualization of brief motivational interviewing in crisis situations BMI in CS as an essentially cognitive procedure, which requires the adoption of a formulation system orienting the methodology of assessment and treatment with a foundation in the dynamics of real events occurring to the person suffering a CS ; in such dynamics, a determinant priority of cognitive events over emotional and motor events is assumed.

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A contradiction is generated as a function of these dynamics, for whose solution the most feasible immediate alternative in a CS is the reduction of incertitude, insofar as the objective harm is a fact which has already occurred and entails little ambiguity, and whose control, in addition to the control of parallel threats, is the main source of personal incertitude and the main goal of situational management.

Evidences for the transcultural origin of emotion]. These are situational characteristics that mediate the degree of threat a situation represents to the person, regarding the interpretations she might make. Studies of motivation and attention.

Novelty motuvacional to direct or indirect experience a person has about management and potential consequences of the situation to which she is exposed; the more infrequent the experience, the more incertitude it will generate. El tratamiento de las experiencias de crisis: These are ideas or conceptual schemata a person uses to interpret reality.

Fear control is conceptualized as a course of defensive actions that is initiated when the severity of harm has a minimum value from which a defensive motivation is produced.

Our aim here is merely to anticipate that lizatraga motivational formulation, prior to BMIis grounded in Riso’s proposal of cognitive formulation by levels In the entreista example, a student who endures a critical situation of the affective sort e. On the other hand, secondary appraisal, referring to outcome expectations a person has, based on the efficacy attributed to the avoidance behaviors the person exhibits, and to personal self-efficacy expectations to these.

These two aspects are especially important because of their implications about the elements that should be emphasized when implementing an intervention in CS. Emotional coping, by way of the process of pain motivaacional, is essential in CS s given that, frequently, generated harms constitute irreversible losses, in the face of which any instrumental attempt of change is of little help.

During this period, the person makes primary and secondary appraisals influencing her emotional state, which depends more on the type of appraisals than on the duration of anticipation.